工程管理以及工程造价外文翻译--BIM带来角色的变化

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- 1 - 中文 2878 字 外文 文献 The changes of rules brought by BIM Rizal Sebastian TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft, The Netherlands Abstract Purpose – This paper aims to present a general review of the practical implications of building information modelling BIM based on literature and case studies. It seeks to address the necessity for applying BIM and re-organising the processes and roles in hospital building projects. This type of project is complex due to complicated functional and technical requirements, decision making involving a large number of stakeholders, and long-term development processes. Design/methodology/approach – Through desk research and referring to the ongoing European research project InPro, the framework for integrated collaboration and the use of BIM are analysed. Through several real cases, the changing roles of clients, architects, and contractors through BIM application are investigated. Findings – One of the main findings is the identification of the main factors for a successful collaboration using BIM, which can be recognised as “POWER” product information sharing P,organisational roles synergy O, work processes coordination W, environment for teamwork E, and reference data consolidation R. Furthermore, it is also found that the implementation of BIM in hospital building projects is still limited due to certain commercial and legal barriers, as well as the fact that integrated collaboration has not yet been embedded in the real estate strategies of healthcare institutions. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the actual discussion in science and practice on the changing roles and processes that are required to develop and operate sustainable buildings with the support of integrated ICT frameworks and tools. It presents the state-of-the-art of European research projects and some of the first real cases of BIM application in hospital building projects. Keywords Europe, Hospitals, The Netherlands, Construction works, Response flexibility, Project planning Paper type General review - 2 - 1. Introduction Hospital building projects, are of key importance, and involve significant investment, and usually take a long-term development period. Hospital building projects are also very complex due to the complicated requirements regarding hygiene, safety, special equipments, and handling of a large amount of data. The building process is very dynamic and comprises iterative phases and intermediate changes. Many actors with shifting agendas, roles and responsibilities are actively involved, such as the healthcare institutions, national and local governments, project developers, financial institutions, architects, contractors, advisors, facility managers, and equipment manufacturers and suppliers. Such building projects are very much influenced, by the healthcare policy, which changes rapidly in response to the medical, societal and technological developments, and varies greatly between countries World Health Organization, 2000. In The Netherlands, for example, the way a building project in the healthcare sector is organised is undergoing a major reform due to a fundamental change in the Dutch health policy that was introduced in 2008. The rapidly changing context posts a need for a building with flexibility over its lifecycle. In order to incorporate life-cycle considerations in the building design, construction technique, and facility management strategy, a multidisciplinary collaboration is required. Despite the attempt for establishing integrated collaboration, healthcare building projects still faces serious problems in practice, such as budget overrun, delay, and sub-optimal quality in terms of flexibility, end-user’s dissatisfaction, and energy inefficiency. It is evident that the lack of communication and coordination between the actors involved in the different phases of a building project is among the most important reasons behind these problems. The communication between different stakeholders becomes critical, as each stakeholder possesses different set of skills. As a result, the processes for extraction, interpretation, and communication of complex design information from drawings and documents are often time-consuming and difficult. Advanced visualisation technologies, like 4D planning have tremendous potential to increase the communication efficiency and interpretation ability of the project team members. However, their use as an effective communication tool is still limited and not fully explored Dawood and Sikka, 2008. There are also other barriers in the information transfer and integration, for instance many - 3 - existing ICT systems do not support the openness of the data and structure that is prerequisite for an effective collaboration between different building actors or disciplines. Building information modelling BIM offers an integrated solution to the previously mentioned problems. Therefore, BIM is increasingly used as an ICT support in complex building projects. An effective multidisciplinary collaboration supported by an optimal use of BIM require changing roles of the clients, architects, and contractors; new contractual relationships; and re-organised collaborative processes. Unfortunately, there are still gaps in the practical knowledge on how to manage the building actors to collaborate effectively in their changing roles, and to develop and utilise BIM as an optimal ICT support of the collaboration. This paper presents a general review of the practical implications of building information modelling BIM based on literature review and case studies. In the next sections, based on literature and recent findings from European research project InPro, the framework for integrated collaboration and the use of BIM are analysed. Subsequently, through the observation of two ongoing pilot projects in The Netherlands, the changing roles of clients, architects, and contractors through BIM application are investigated. In conclusion, the critical success factors as well as the main barriers of a successful integrated collaboration using BIM are identified. 2. Changing roles through integrated collaboration and life-cycle design approaches A hospital building project involves various actors, roles, and knowledge domains. In The Netherlands, the changing roles of clients, architects, and contractors in hospital building projects are inevitable due the new healthcare policy. Previously under the Healthcare Institutions Act WTZi, healthcare institutions were required to obtain both a license and a building permit for new construction projects and major renovations. The permit was issued by the Dutch Ministry of Health. The healthcare institutions were then eligible to receive financial support from the government. Since 2008, new legislation on the management of hospital building projects and real estate has come into force. In this new legislation, a permit for hospital building project under the WTZi is no longer obligatory, nor obtainable Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, 2008. This change allows more freedom from the state-directed policy, and respectively, allocates more responsibilities to the healthcare organisations to deal with the financing and management of their real estate. The new policy implies that the healthcare institutions are fully responsible to manage and finance their building projects and real estate. The government’s
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工程 管理 以及 工程造价 外文 翻译 bim 带来 角色 变化
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