外文翻译--结构工程在新时代遇到的机遇与挑战

收藏

编号:201405171103332089    类型:共享资源    大小:51.00KB    格式:DOC    上传时间:2019-06-27
  
100
金币
关 键 词:
外文 翻译 结构 工程 时代 时期 遇到 机遇 挑战
资源描述:
1 Structural engineering in the newmillennium: opportunities andchallenges Abstract Purpose – Structural engineering as a part of civil engineering has over 5,000 years of distinguishedhistory, as documented in this paper. An attempt is made in this paper to define structural engineeringas it exists at present, then some historical structures are identified. Design/methodology/approach – The advances of structural engineering are discussed inchronological order, encompassing the development of the concept, analysis, the use of innovativeconstruction materials, and construction. The developments which necessitated the change of design philosophies are presented, and the current status of structural engineering is discussed in terms ofseveral specific topics. Opportunities and challenges in the new millennium in structural engineeringare then presented in terms of education, service to society, and research. Findings – In the past, structural engineering always met the challenges it faced. It helped toimprove our quality of life, and its role in society is not expected to change in the near future. Originality/value – The paper has provided an over-view of this important profession – fromancient history to the present day. Based on research over several decades it offers a prediction of thedirection in which this profession and the academic research that underpins it is likely to take in thefuture. Keywords- Structural engineering, Civil engineering, History Paper type- Literature review Introduction The task of defining structural engineering is very complicated. At present it is a majorpart of civil engineering in most countries, but it could be part of any engineeringdiscipline where structures need to be built. Before discussing the engineering aspectsof structures, the most interesting question often asked by the general public is “Whatis a structure?” In a philosophical way a structure can be defined as what we seearound us in the plant world, insect world and the animal (including human) world The leaf of a plant could be very interesting, even breathtaking, but they are 2 fragilestructures. A Saguaro Cactus is an extremely efficient structure and can live more than200 years under extreme conditions. Structures built by insects are also fascinating,and they build them to meet their needs. Who could ignore a spider’s web, a moundbuilt by termites, dams built by beavers, nests built by birds, or hives built by bees? Structures built by animals. including humans, do not need any further discussion.However, with our advanced knowledge at present we can define structuralengineering as a discipline that helps us to transfer a load applied in space to theground in the most efficient way. With this definition, the most efficient structure willbe a simple pole to bring a point load applied in the space. Structural engineering Structural engineering consists of several interconnected areas including developingunderlying physical principles, then presenting them in the form of governing equations, developing analysis techniques to solve the governing equations,integrating theories and material properties (mechanics of materials) to givespecialized structural forms, and then developing innovative construction techniques to give the concept a realistic, practical and aesthetic form. In all of these areas,structural engineers contribute significantly by combining mathematical, scientific, artistic, and entrepreneur skills.The significant contributions of structural engineering can be established bystudying some old historic structures. The building of pyramids could be one of thosemonumental events. It should be noted that structures made with stone and mud or with other available materials were built before pyramids, say around 3000 BC, but forthis discussion they are not considered to be engineered structures. The first pyramidwas the Step Pyramid at Saqqara, built for King Zoser in 2750 BC. This represents thefirst application of large-scale technology. Imhotep, the architect of the Step Pyramid isoften credited with its design. He was not a pharaoh or structural engineer, but was the Director of Works of Upper and Lower Egypt. The superstructure of the pyramid was made of small limestone blocks and desert clay. The Great Pyramid of Giza was built by the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty around the year 2560 BC toserve as his tomb. The way we define structural engineering today was most likely initiated at thetime of Lord Buddha, about 500 BC Greeks played very important roles during thistime – the 3 Parthenon was built in 438 BC. Experience, intuition, and empirical rulesmight have played very crucial roles at this early stage of development. Stone andmasonry were the primary materials used for the construction. Then Aristotle(384-322 BC) and Archimedes (287-212 BC) came into the picture. They are credited withinitiating the development of the principles of statics. Then Romans started building arches, domes and vaults using stone, masonry, wood, and some metal. They did notuse any analytical principles, but used some basic forms to build their structures. This type of activity continued for about 1,000 years, say up to about 500 AD Design philosophies Advances in numerical analysis techniques also identified the weaknesses in them.Most of these techniques work very well verifying failures but are generally unable toprevent failures. One of the main reasons for this is our inability to predict futureloadings and the corresponding material behavior. This is also reflected in thedevelopment in the design guidelines In a historical perspective, hazards in structural engineering were observed at least4,000 years ago. The earliest known building code was used in Mesopotamia.Hammurabi, the king of Babylonia, who died about 1750 BC, issued code provisions.They were carved in stones and they can be seen in the Louvre in Paris. Theyaddressed many different issues including economic provisions (prices, tariffs, trade,and commerce), family law (marriage and divorce), criminal law (assault, theft), andcivil law (slavery, debt). Current status of structural engineering We will first try to address issues related to structural/civil engineering education.Then, we would like to identify some of the areas where structural engineers havemade significant contributions in the recent past. In his own career, the first authorused slide rule, log table, T-square, bevel set squares, etc. For this discussion, evenobservations he made early in his career are considered to be old in a relative sense. Wewill emphasize some recent developments. The list is not exhaustive and items arepresented not in the order of importance Opportunities and challenges in the new millennium It is clear from the previous discussion that structural engineering has a long andillustrious history. Where do we go from here? Recent devastating failures duringearthquakes, tsunami, hurricane or tornado, impact and explosive incidences, fire, etc.,demonstrated to the world community our inability to design and construct
展开阅读全文
  毕设资料网所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
0条评论

还可以输入200字符

暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

关于本文
本文标题:外文翻译--结构工程在新时代遇到的机遇与挑战
链接地址:http://www.bisheziliao.com/p-132089.html

当前资源信息

浏览:73次
泛舟上传于2019-06-27

相关资源

  • 【精品文档】343关于零件切削变形有关 的外文文献翻译成品:钛薄壁零件铣削加工变形的研究(中英文双语对照)【精品文档】343关于零件切削变形有关 的外文文献翻译成品:钛薄壁零件铣削加工变形的研究(中英文双语对照)
  • 【精品文档】341关于计算机专业Java课程教学学生学习成绩班级管理系统设计有关的外文文献翻译成品:用于Java编程课程的基于云的学习系统(中英文双语对照)【精品文档】341关于计算机专业Java课程教学学生学习成绩班级管理系统设计有关的外文文献翻译成品:用于Java编程课程的基于云的学习系统(中英文双语对照)
  • 【精品文档】342关于资产结构对上市企业公司绩效影响有关的外文文献翻译成品:资本结构对波罗的海企业绩效的影响(中英文双语对照)【精品文档】342关于资产结构对上市企业公司绩效影响有关的外文文献翻译成品:资本结构对波罗的海企业绩效的影响(中英文双语对照)
  • 【精品文档】317关于地质边坡滑坡稳定性评估计算有关 的外文文献翻译成品:中北欧边界外特吕纳德朱佩特滑坡区的边坡稳定性评估(中英文双语对照)【精品文档】317关于地质边坡滑坡稳定性评估计算有关 的外文文献翻译成品:中北欧边界外特吕纳德朱佩特滑坡区的边坡稳定性评估(中英文双语对照)
  • 【精品文档】357关于农业自动化灌溉浇灌滴灌控制系统设计有关 的外文文献翻译成品:自动灌溉系统的设计与实现(中英文双语对照)【精品文档】357关于农业自动化灌溉浇灌滴灌控制系统设计有关 的外文文献翻译成品:自动灌溉系统的设计与实现(中英文双语对照)
  • 【精品文档】333关于公共空间滨水景观设计规划有关 的外文文献翻译成品:市民对城市开放空间水景设计的偏好研究(中英文双语对照)9【精品文档】333关于公共空间滨水景观设计规划有关 的外文文献翻译成品:市民对城市开放空间水景设计的偏好研究(中英文双语对照)9
  • 【精品文档】331关于绿色环保创新对企业公司环境绩效有关 的外文文献翻译成品:绿色创新对环境和企业绩效的影响:利益相关者视角(中英文双语对照)【精品文档】331关于绿色环保创新对企业公司环境绩效有关 的外文文献翻译成品:绿色创新对环境和企业绩效的影响:利益相关者视角(中英文双语对照)
  • 【精品文档】335关于我国新能源汽车营销战略策略有关 的外文文献翻译成品:中国新能源汽车的STP营销策略(中英文双语对照)【精品文档】335关于我国新能源汽车营销战略策略有关 的外文文献翻译成品:中国新能源汽车的STP营销策略(中英文双语对照)
  • 【精品文档】334关于城市生态滨水景观设计有关 的外文文献翻译成品:现代城市生态水景规划设计(中英文双语对照)7【精品文档】334关于城市生态滨水景观设计有关 的外文文献翻译成品:现代城市生态水景规划设计(中英文双语对照)7
  • 【精品文档】关于计算机专业软件程序ActionScript有关 的外文文献翻译成品:关于将Flash文件迁移到HTML5 JavaScript的研究(中英文双语对照)【精品文档】关于计算机专业软件程序ActionScript有关 的外文文献翻译成品:关于将Flash文件迁移到HTML5 JavaScript的研究(中英文双语对照)
  • 【精品文档】339关于锅炉系统热效率影响因素分析优化设计有关 的外文文献翻译成品:锅炉系统热效率的影响分析与优化设计(中英文双语对照)【精品文档】339关于锅炉系统热效率影响因素分析优化设计有关 的外文文献翻译成品:锅炉系统热效率的影响分析与优化设计(中英文双语对照)
  • 毕设资料下载
    关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服 - 联系我们
    本站所有资料均属于原创者所有,仅提供参考和学习交流之用,请勿用做其他用途,转载必究!如有侵犯您的权利请联系本站,一经查实我们会立即删除相关内容!
    copyright@ 2008-2025 毕设资料网版权所有
    网站备案号: 蜀ICP备14003304号-1

    举报电话:13982715227     举报邮箱:540560583@qq.com

    川公网安备 51050302000003号