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风能介绍外文翻译

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风能介绍外文翻译

附录一英文文献 Wind Energy Introduction 1.1 Historical Development Windmills have been used for at least 3000 years, mainly for grinding grain or pumping water, while in sailing ships the wind has been an essential source of power for even longer. From as early as the thirteenth century, horizontal-axis windmills were an integral part of the rural economy and only fell into disuse with the advent of cheap fossil-fuelled engines and then the spread of rural electrification.The use of windmills or wind turbines to generate electricity can be traced back to the late nineteenth century with the 12 kW DC windmill generator constructed by Brush in the USA and the research undertaken by LaCour in Denmark. However, for much of the twentieth century there was little interest in using wind energy other than for battery charging for remote dwellings and these low-power systems were quickly replaced once access to the electricity grid became available. One notable exception was the 1250 kW Smith–Putnam wind turbine constructed in the USA in 1941. This remarkable machine had a steel rotor 53 m in diameter, full-span pitch control and flapping blades to reduce loads. Although ablade spar failed catastrophically in 1945, it remained the largest wind turbine constructed for some 40 years Putnam, 1948. Golding 1955 and Shepherd and Divone in Spera 1994 provide a fascinating history of early wind turbine development. They record the 100 kW 30 mdiameter Balaclava wind turbine in the then USSR in 1931 and the Andrea Enfield 100 kW 24 m diameter pneumatic design constructed in the UK in the early 1950s. In this turbine hollow blades, open at the tip, were used to draw air up through the tower where another turbine drove the generator. In Denmark the 200 kW 24 m diameter Gedser machine was built in 1956 while Electricite de France tested a 1.1 MW 35 m diameter turbine in 1963. In Germany, Professor Hutter constructed a number of innovative, lightweight turbines in the 1950s and 1960s. In spite of these technical advances and the enthusiasm, among others, of Golding at the Electrical Research Association in the UK there was little sustained interest in wind generation until the price of oil rose dramatically in 1973. The sudden increase in the price of oil stimulated a number of substantial Government-funded programmes of research, development and demonstration. In the USA this led to the construction of a series of prototype turbines starting with the 38 m diameter 100 kW Mod-0 in 1975 and culminating in the 97.5 m diameter 2.5 MW Mod-5B in 1987. Similar programmes were pursued in the UK, Germany and Sweden. There was considerable uncertainty as to which architecture might prove most cost-effective and several innovative concepts were investigated at full scale. In Canada, a 4 MW vertical-axis Darrieus wind turbine was constructed and this concept was also investigated in the 34 m diameter Sandia Vertical Axis Test Facility in the USA. In the UK, an alternative vertical-axis design using straight blades to give an ‘H’ type rotor was proposed by Dr Peter Musgrove and a 500 kW prototype constructed. In 1981 an innovative horizontal-axis 3 MW wind turbine was built and tested in the USA. This used hydraulic transmission and, as an alternative to a yaw drive, the entire structure was orientated into the wind. The best choice for the number of blades remained unclear for some while and large turbines were constructed with one, two or three blades. Much important scientific and engineering ination was gained from these Government-funded research programmes and the prototypes generally worked as designed. However, it has to be recognized that the problems of operating very large Figure 1.1 1.5 MW, 64 m diameter Wind Turbine Reproduced by permission of NEG MICON wind turbines, unmanned and in difficult wind climates were often under-estimated and the reliability of the prototypes was not good. At the same time as the multi-megawatt prototypes were being constructed private companies, often with

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